Abiotic factors are physical, or nonliving, factors that shapes an ecosystem. In Denali the abiotic factors are the cold environmental temperature, the availability of water, the light intensity and amount of sunlight, wind, the rocks and soil, and the climate. The temperature of Denali is relatively cold because it is in the arctic tundra biome and the taiga biome. The temperature varies through the seasons and can range from 91°F to -54°F (extreme). The summers of Denali are hot and the average temeperature is 22ºF. In the winter, the average temperature is below freezing. There are many water sources in Denali because of the permafrost and bogs and marshes. Even if there is little precipitation in both the taiga and tundra biome, it is sufficient enough to provide the organisms with water sources. There is enough sunlight in Denali, that is why there are many organisms that live in the biome coniferous trees are abundant as well as shrubs and lichens. The soil in Denali is rocky and acidic so there is not much nutritious value present. The climate of Denali has a great influence on its ecology. The aboitic factors above (temperature, water, sunlight, and wind) influence the climate of Denali. Permafrost is also a abiotic factor because there are insects that depend on the snow to keep their eggs hidden and frozen, so when they thaw, the eggs are hatched and the insects will survive in the spring.

rock and soil

Biotic Factors are biological influences on organisms within an ecosystem and affect the distribution of organisms. These biotic factors are determined on interactions with other species, predation, and competition among the producers and consumers. The biotic factors are the producers and the consumers, the consumers are made up of prey and predator.